Faculty Mentor

T. F. McLaughlin and Jennifer Neyman

Subject Area

Education, Psychology, Other


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a Direct Instruction (DI) flashcard system on the mastery of the multiplication facts by a 14-year-old boy with learning and behavioral issues. The participant attended a low-income high school located in a large urban area in the Pacific Northwest. A changing criterion design was employed to evaluate the efficacy of DI flashcards. When DI flashcards were employed, the performance increased and the participant met or was close to criterion for each criterion ceiling. The DI flashcard procedure was easy to implement and evaluate, and the current paper includes suggestions for additional research with DI flashcards at the high school level.


multiplication, LD, behavior disorders, math facts, elementary student, secondary student, DI flashcards, changing criterion design