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Date of Award
Dissertation (On-Campus Access Only)
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Very little previous research has focused on the relationships between gender role conflict, gender roles, and internalized homophobia in gay men. The present study investigates the relationships between these constructs using cross-sectional data collected in 2013 from a nationwide sample of 149 gay men. Although no significant relationship was found between internalized homophobia and gender roles, unexpected and significant relationships were found between other variables. A strong negative correlation was found between gender role conflict and internalized homophobia. In addition, a strong relationship was found between gender role conflict and gender roles, with androgynous gay men having significantly lower levels of gender role conflict than masculine gay men. The role of age and major cultural changes vis-à-vis stigmatization of gay individuals was also explored. Clinical implications of these findings, limitations of this sample, and suggestions for future research that could both help clarify these findings and generalize them to a larger population are discussed.
Levine, Alexander (2015). Gender role conflict’s relationship to internalized homophobia and gender roles in gay men (Doctoral dissertation, Pacific University). Retrieved from: