Title

Research Poster Session - Parental Self-Efficacy in Mothers of Young Children from Multi-Risk Populations

Location

Magnolia Room

Start Time

17-10-2013 6:30 PM

End Time

17-10-2013 8:30 PM

Abstract

This poster presentation summarizes the influences on parental self-efficacy for African American mothers who are homeless and discusses the extent to which current assessments account for such influences. In a nation with over 79,446 homeless family households5, there are numerous children experiencing more barriers to learning and social emotional development than homed children1, 4. To address social participation in children, occupational therapists implement family-centered interventions centered on the inclusion of cultural diversity and the family’s environment. Occupational science provides the tools with which one can break down and analyze the components of a family’s physical, cultural, and socioeconomic environments. Upon viewing this presentation, professionals will better understand why comprehensive and reliable assessments must include the unique physical, cultural and socioeconomic components impacting one’s daily activities.

This presentation focuses on assessments of parental self-efficacy, specifically the Parental Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC). It correlates with a study entitled, “Social Skills and Problem Behaviors in Low-Income Urban Preschool Children: Sensory Processing, Parenting Sense of Competence, and Housing Correlates,” in which the author interviewed mothers from low-income and homeless populations. Knowledgeable of occupational science and occupational justice principles from a Bachelors of Science in Occupational Science curriculum, the researcher analyzed the components of parenting according to the PSOC. A discrepancy existed between factors included on the assessment and information shared during the interviews. Most often, mothers stated they felt confident in their parenting role, but threatened by their external environment. Due to the dyadic nature of occupation and environment, the PSOC was evaluated as to its effectiveness with mothers who are African American and homeless.

The evidence presented comes from other evidence-based literature reviews, qualitative and quantitative studies, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies. The evidence supports addressing parental self-efficacy within cultural and environmental contexts and within the realm of family-centered care for African American families who are low-income housed or homeless. Parenting competency is an outgrowth of the child’s occupational experience, as maternal self-efficacy directly impacts child self-efficacy and a child with a high sense of competence has greater success overcoming the adverse barriers of his or her socioeconomic environment1,2,4. However, the Parental Sense of Competence Scale appears weak in accounting for economic barriers, environmental risks, and limited social support3.

Occupational science supports the inclusion cultural diversity and environmental barriers in early intervention, because occupations occur of and in an individual’s context. Understanding the client’s environment helps therapists predict emergent, uncertain, and problematic tensions threatening the desired occupational outcomes. In early intervention, therapists address such threats by increasing a mother’s competence in overcoming environmental barriers 1, 2,4. Not enough research has been done to identify the occupational components to include on assessments of maternal self-efficacy 3. Leaders in occupational science must step forward, identifying the components of a family’s physical, cultural, and socioeconomic environments in diverse populations. Only then will therapists have the resources to improve child development and increase quality of life.

Keywords: early intervention, parental self-efficacy, multi-risk populations

References

1. Cohn, E. S., May-Benson, T.A., &Teasdale, A. (2010). Occupational therapy’s perspective on the use of environments and contexts to support health and participation in occupations. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(6), 57- 69. DOI:10.5014/ajot.2010.64S57-S69.

2. Cutchin, M. P. (2012). The art and science of occupation: Nature, inquiry, aesthetics of living. Journal of Occupational Science, DOI:10.1080/14427591.2012.744290.

3. Gilmore, I., & Cuskelly, M. (2008). Factor structure of the parenting sense of competence scale using a normative sample. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 35(1), 48-55. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2008.00867.x

4. Raver, C. C., & Leadbeater, B. J. (1999). Mothering under pressure: Environmental, child, and dyadic correlates of maternal self-efficacy among low-income women. Journal of Psychology, 13(4), 523-534.

5. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Office of Community Planning and Development. (2009). The 2008 annual homeless assessment report to Congress. Washington, DC.

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Oct 17th, 6:30 PM Oct 17th, 8:30 PM

Research Poster Session - Parental Self-Efficacy in Mothers of Young Children from Multi-Risk Populations

Magnolia Room

This poster presentation summarizes the influences on parental self-efficacy for African American mothers who are homeless and discusses the extent to which current assessments account for such influences. In a nation with over 79,446 homeless family households5, there are numerous children experiencing more barriers to learning and social emotional development than homed children1, 4. To address social participation in children, occupational therapists implement family-centered interventions centered on the inclusion of cultural diversity and the family’s environment. Occupational science provides the tools with which one can break down and analyze the components of a family’s physical, cultural, and socioeconomic environments. Upon viewing this presentation, professionals will better understand why comprehensive and reliable assessments must include the unique physical, cultural and socioeconomic components impacting one’s daily activities.

This presentation focuses on assessments of parental self-efficacy, specifically the Parental Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC). It correlates with a study entitled, “Social Skills and Problem Behaviors in Low-Income Urban Preschool Children: Sensory Processing, Parenting Sense of Competence, and Housing Correlates,” in which the author interviewed mothers from low-income and homeless populations. Knowledgeable of occupational science and occupational justice principles from a Bachelors of Science in Occupational Science curriculum, the researcher analyzed the components of parenting according to the PSOC. A discrepancy existed between factors included on the assessment and information shared during the interviews. Most often, mothers stated they felt confident in their parenting role, but threatened by their external environment. Due to the dyadic nature of occupation and environment, the PSOC was evaluated as to its effectiveness with mothers who are African American and homeless.

The evidence presented comes from other evidence-based literature reviews, qualitative and quantitative studies, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies. The evidence supports addressing parental self-efficacy within cultural and environmental contexts and within the realm of family-centered care for African American families who are low-income housed or homeless. Parenting competency is an outgrowth of the child’s occupational experience, as maternal self-efficacy directly impacts child self-efficacy and a child with a high sense of competence has greater success overcoming the adverse barriers of his or her socioeconomic environment1,2,4. However, the Parental Sense of Competence Scale appears weak in accounting for economic barriers, environmental risks, and limited social support3.

Occupational science supports the inclusion cultural diversity and environmental barriers in early intervention, because occupations occur of and in an individual’s context. Understanding the client’s environment helps therapists predict emergent, uncertain, and problematic tensions threatening the desired occupational outcomes. In early intervention, therapists address such threats by increasing a mother’s competence in overcoming environmental barriers 1, 2,4. Not enough research has been done to identify the occupational components to include on assessments of maternal self-efficacy 3. Leaders in occupational science must step forward, identifying the components of a family’s physical, cultural, and socioeconomic environments in diverse populations. Only then will therapists have the resources to improve child development and increase quality of life.

Keywords: early intervention, parental self-efficacy, multi-risk populations