Title

The Initial Validation of the Daily Experiences of Pleasure, Productivity and Restoration Profile: Preliminary Evidence for Its Use to Promote Reflection

Location

Room D

Start Time

19-10-2013 9:35 AM

End Time

19-10-2013 10:05 AM

Session Type

Research Paper

Abstract

Background and Rationale: Peoples’ subjective experiences associated with everyday occupations have long been valued by occupational scientists. However, there is a need to develop measures that capture the subjective experiences of occupation (Hemmingsson & Jonsson, 2005)To date, Experiential Sampling Method (ESM), a random sampling method, has been the most widely used and reported way for capturing subjective experiences of daily life (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). However, ESM has several reported limitations; it is not designed to gather a full day’s activities, nor is it practical (Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, & Stone, 2004).

Purpose Statement: The purpose of this research was to initiate validation of the Daily Experiences of Pleasure, Productivity and Restoration Profile (PPR Profile) with an emphasis on examination of its’ utility. The PPR Profile is a time use diary that captures the objective and subjective dimensions of occupation, and allows opportunity for reflection on one’s occupational experiences.

Methods: This research included two phases: 1) refinement of the PPR Profile, and 2) initial assessment of the utility of using the PPR Profile. Phase 1: Participants. Nineteen people (18-89 years of age) were selected using non-probability quota sampling. Procedure. Participants completed the PPR Profile for one day followed by a cognitive interview, allowing the researchers to understand how participants thought during completion of the assessment. Three rounds of interviews allowed for modifications and re-testing. Analysis. Content analysis, and organized visual display strategies were used. Methodological and investigator triangulation enhanced the study’s credibility. Results. Validity evidence based on response processes guided improvements to the PPR Profile, and confirmed consistency between participants’ PPR Profile ratings and responses during the interviews. Little or no burden using the assessment was reported, and participants expressed awareness of their experiences related to occupational engagement. Phase 2 - Participants. Seventeen people (20-71 years of age) were selected using non-probability sampling. Procedure. Participants engaged in a semi-structured interview focused on understanding their experience using the PPR Profile following completion of the PPR Profile for two days. Analysis. A constant comparative analysis approach was used. Investigator triangulation was used. Results. All participants reported little or no burden, and expressed awareness of their activities or related experiences. For some, reflections provided additional insight into the meaning or value attached to their experiences. Results from both phases suggest the PPR Profile is an assessment that can help people become aware of their occupations, which has been suggested as necessary to making changes in one’s occupations to support health and well-being (Clark et al., 2004).

Contributions to Occupational Science: This research provides support for a new assessment that may help occupational scientists explore subjective experiences within and across individuals. Reflection upon one’s occupations, which can be facilitated by use of the PPR Profile, is an essential first step to transformative learning in which people can begin to take ownership of authoring occupational changes to support their health and well-being (Mezirow, 2000).

Presentation Learning Objectives: 1) Describe the characteristics and purpose of the PPR Profile, 2) Discuss the implications for the use of the PPR Profile as a means of reflection and initial step to transformative learning.

References

Clark, F., J. Jackson, et al. (2004). Occupational science, occupational therapy and evidence based practice: What the well elderly study has taught us. Occupation for Occupational Therapists. M. Molineux. Oxford, UK, Blackwell Publishing: 200-218.

Hemmingsson, H., & Jonsson, H. (2005). An occupational perspective on the concept of participation in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health--some critical remarks. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59(5), 569-576.

Kahneman, D., Krueger, A., Schkade, D., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. (2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: The Day Reconstruction Method. Science, 306(5702), 1776-1780.

Mezirow, J. (2000). Learning as Transformation. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Inc.

Nakamura, J. and M. Csikszentmihalyi (2009). Flow theory and research. Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. C. Snyder and S. Lopez. New York, NY, Oxford University Press: 195-206.

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Oct 19th, 9:35 AM Oct 19th, 10:05 AM

The Initial Validation of the Daily Experiences of Pleasure, Productivity and Restoration Profile: Preliminary Evidence for Its Use to Promote Reflection

Room D

Background and Rationale: Peoples’ subjective experiences associated with everyday occupations have long been valued by occupational scientists. However, there is a need to develop measures that capture the subjective experiences of occupation (Hemmingsson & Jonsson, 2005)To date, Experiential Sampling Method (ESM), a random sampling method, has been the most widely used and reported way for capturing subjective experiences of daily life (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). However, ESM has several reported limitations; it is not designed to gather a full day’s activities, nor is it practical (Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, & Stone, 2004).

Purpose Statement: The purpose of this research was to initiate validation of the Daily Experiences of Pleasure, Productivity and Restoration Profile (PPR Profile) with an emphasis on examination of its’ utility. The PPR Profile is a time use diary that captures the objective and subjective dimensions of occupation, and allows opportunity for reflection on one’s occupational experiences.

Methods: This research included two phases: 1) refinement of the PPR Profile, and 2) initial assessment of the utility of using the PPR Profile. Phase 1: Participants. Nineteen people (18-89 years of age) were selected using non-probability quota sampling. Procedure. Participants completed the PPR Profile for one day followed by a cognitive interview, allowing the researchers to understand how participants thought during completion of the assessment. Three rounds of interviews allowed for modifications and re-testing. Analysis. Content analysis, and organized visual display strategies were used. Methodological and investigator triangulation enhanced the study’s credibility. Results. Validity evidence based on response processes guided improvements to the PPR Profile, and confirmed consistency between participants’ PPR Profile ratings and responses during the interviews. Little or no burden using the assessment was reported, and participants expressed awareness of their experiences related to occupational engagement. Phase 2 - Participants. Seventeen people (20-71 years of age) were selected using non-probability sampling. Procedure. Participants engaged in a semi-structured interview focused on understanding their experience using the PPR Profile following completion of the PPR Profile for two days. Analysis. A constant comparative analysis approach was used. Investigator triangulation was used. Results. All participants reported little or no burden, and expressed awareness of their activities or related experiences. For some, reflections provided additional insight into the meaning or value attached to their experiences. Results from both phases suggest the PPR Profile is an assessment that can help people become aware of their occupations, which has been suggested as necessary to making changes in one’s occupations to support health and well-being (Clark et al., 2004).

Contributions to Occupational Science: This research provides support for a new assessment that may help occupational scientists explore subjective experiences within and across individuals. Reflection upon one’s occupations, which can be facilitated by use of the PPR Profile, is an essential first step to transformative learning in which people can begin to take ownership of authoring occupational changes to support their health and well-being (Mezirow, 2000).

Presentation Learning Objectives: 1) Describe the characteristics and purpose of the PPR Profile, 2) Discuss the implications for the use of the PPR Profile as a means of reflection and initial step to transformative learning.