Title

Occupational therapy and equine-assisted activities and therapy: An expanded view for hippotherapy within occupational therapy

Location

New River Room B

Start Time

2-10-2015 10:45 AM

End Time

2-10-2015 12:15 PM

Session Type

Research Paper

Abstract

This paper addresses the theme of interdisciplinary collaborations in the study of occupation. The larger systematic mapping review that this project is situated within is a joint collaboration between the Department of Occupational Therapy and the Department of Equine Sciences at Colorado State University (CSU). This study also looks at a larger sample of equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) literature investigated by multiple professions. An occupational perspective is applied this literature base to inform occupational therapy practice and occupational science.

Purpose

This paper examined the idea that hippotherapy, the type of EAAT most reimbursable for occupational therapists, limits occupational therapy practice in terms of client factors, interventions, and outcomes. Hippotherapy is largely concerned with the movement of the horse providing neurmusculoskeletal outcomes to a passive rider (American Hippotherapy Association, 2010). This paper hypothesized that an expanded approach to involving the horse in occupational therapy would allow for more occupation-based interventions, outcomes related to performance and participation, and enlarged scope of clientele who can benefit from what Engel (2007) termed equine-assisted occupational therapy (p. 7).

Methods

This paper is situated within a systematic mapping review study of all peer-reviewed, EAAT papers written in English between 1980 and 2014. Nine databases and manual reference lists of included articles were searched with 1,526 records screened and 234 meeting inclusion criteria. Interrater reliability was achieved at 95% for inclusion and exclusion criteria after screening 280 articles. My study included 28 intervention papers with adult participants. A data extraction tool (DET) was developed for capturing EAAT data. The DET was reviewed by an expert panel. Six research team members coded ten articles, achieving 90% interrater reliability; reliability checks were performed every 22 articles. The DET was uploaded into Microsoft Access. Data from the DET was then inputted, queried, and copied into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Using the pivot table feature, descriptive statistics were developed from DET data.

Results

The hypothesis was partially supported in terms of expanding client factors. Population descriptors and diagnoses in all EAAT papers extended beyond neurmusculoskeletal issues; however client factors of values, beliefs, and spirituality were only addressed in one paper. The EAAT papers also supported the hypothesis regarding intervention. Data included a breadth of intervention descriptions and the use of the horse in addition to passive riding (not controlling the direction or speed of the horse). Lastly the data supported more holistic client outcomes in addition to physical health. Descriptive statistics provided within the paper.

Discussion

Implications for occupational science include the need to develop a type of equine-assisted therapy more aligned with occupational therapy values. Suggestions for equine-facilitated occupational therapy (EFOT) include client factors in the context of the client’s valued activities. The study of EFOT would also include occupation-based interventions involving the horse and equine environment in a variety of ways. Lastly EFOT would examine outcomes including a holistic range of outcomes related to performance and participation in everyday occupations.

Key Words

Occupational therapy, hippotherapy, equine-assisted

References

References

American Hippotherapy Association. (2010). Hippotherapy as a Treatment Strategy. Retrieved 1/9/2014, from http://www.americanhippotherapyassociation.org/hippotherapy/hippotherapy-as-a-treatment-strategy/

Engel, B. T. (2007). Hippotherapy in the practice of occupational therapy. In B. T. Engel & J. R. MacKinnon (Eds.), Enhancing human occupation through hippotherapy: A guide for occupational therapy (pp. 6-10). Bethesda, MD: The American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

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Oct 2nd, 10:45 AM Oct 2nd, 12:15 PM

Occupational therapy and equine-assisted activities and therapy: An expanded view for hippotherapy within occupational therapy

New River Room B

This paper addresses the theme of interdisciplinary collaborations in the study of occupation. The larger systematic mapping review that this project is situated within is a joint collaboration between the Department of Occupational Therapy and the Department of Equine Sciences at Colorado State University (CSU). This study also looks at a larger sample of equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) literature investigated by multiple professions. An occupational perspective is applied this literature base to inform occupational therapy practice and occupational science.

Purpose

This paper examined the idea that hippotherapy, the type of EAAT most reimbursable for occupational therapists, limits occupational therapy practice in terms of client factors, interventions, and outcomes. Hippotherapy is largely concerned with the movement of the horse providing neurmusculoskeletal outcomes to a passive rider (American Hippotherapy Association, 2010). This paper hypothesized that an expanded approach to involving the horse in occupational therapy would allow for more occupation-based interventions, outcomes related to performance and participation, and enlarged scope of clientele who can benefit from what Engel (2007) termed equine-assisted occupational therapy (p. 7).

Methods

This paper is situated within a systematic mapping review study of all peer-reviewed, EAAT papers written in English between 1980 and 2014. Nine databases and manual reference lists of included articles were searched with 1,526 records screened and 234 meeting inclusion criteria. Interrater reliability was achieved at 95% for inclusion and exclusion criteria after screening 280 articles. My study included 28 intervention papers with adult participants. A data extraction tool (DET) was developed for capturing EAAT data. The DET was reviewed by an expert panel. Six research team members coded ten articles, achieving 90% interrater reliability; reliability checks were performed every 22 articles. The DET was uploaded into Microsoft Access. Data from the DET was then inputted, queried, and copied into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Using the pivot table feature, descriptive statistics were developed from DET data.

Results

The hypothesis was partially supported in terms of expanding client factors. Population descriptors and diagnoses in all EAAT papers extended beyond neurmusculoskeletal issues; however client factors of values, beliefs, and spirituality were only addressed in one paper. The EAAT papers also supported the hypothesis regarding intervention. Data included a breadth of intervention descriptions and the use of the horse in addition to passive riding (not controlling the direction or speed of the horse). Lastly the data supported more holistic client outcomes in addition to physical health. Descriptive statistics provided within the paper.

Discussion

Implications for occupational science include the need to develop a type of equine-assisted therapy more aligned with occupational therapy values. Suggestions for equine-facilitated occupational therapy (EFOT) include client factors in the context of the client’s valued activities. The study of EFOT would also include occupation-based interventions involving the horse and equine environment in a variety of ways. Lastly EFOT would examine outcomes including a holistic range of outcomes related to performance and participation in everyday occupations.

Key Words

Occupational therapy, hippotherapy, equine-assisted