Title

Poster Session - Facilitating adaptation: The effects of an occupation-based program

Location

New River Rooms A & B

Start Time

2-10-2015 8:00 PM

End Time

2-10-2015 9:00 PM

Abstract

Intellectual/developmental disabilities are a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental and/or physical impairments. People with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDD) may experience problems with major life activities such as communication, mobility, social participation, and independent living (CDC, 2015). These problems may serve as barriers to participation in occupations, meaningful activities and provide individuals with a positive quality of life. According to the Centers for Disease Control (2015), there is an increase in the prevalence of individuals diagnosed with IDD. Therefore, it is imperative that evidence-based programming be developed to facilitate participation in occupation.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the performing arts in facilitating change in adaptive behaviors when used as an occupation. Acting Creates Therapeutic Success (ACTS), is a community-based program designed to provide those with IDD the opportunity to participate in the performing arts through the utilization of drama, dance, art, and music. Under the direction of occupational therapy practitioners, participants are encouraged to contribute in all areas of the creative process including story development, dance choreography, actor portrayal, costuming, set and playbill design; culminating in a performance for the public.

This efficacy study utilized a one-way repeated measures design over time (Portney & Watkins, 2009) to evaluate whether those who participated in ACTS demonstrated mastery in their person system behaviors. Schkade and Schultz (1992) defined person system behaviors as the sensorimotor, cognitive, and psychosocial characteristics present in the actions of an individual while performing a task. Participants were 13 adults ages 22 to 60 with IDD who were enrolled in ACTS for one hour a week for 12 weeks and met all inclusion criteria. Changes were measured by documenting the occurrence of the participant’s person system behaviors on the Person System Behavior Taxonomy developed by the researchers (Moore & Brown, 2012). Based on the Theory of Occupational Adaptation, this taxonomy consisted of 45 behavior statements reflecting a categorization of primitive, transitional, and mature adaptive response behaviors in the sensorimotor, cognitive, and psychosocial areas of the person system. The Person System Behavior Taxonomy was completed every 4th session for a total of 12 weeks by rating the frequency of each behavior on a 5-point scale. In this study, improvements were found in all three person systems with the greatest change occurring in the psychosocial person system. The findings support the use of the performing arts as a meaningful occupation among individuals with IDD.

As occupational science asserts, adaptation occurs when humans pursue and orchestrate occupations (Clark, et al., 1991). Similarly, research participants who were engaged in the occupation of the performing arts demonstrated a positive change in adaptation, thus supporting this assertion.

Attendees of this presentation will hear the results of an efficacy study regarding the benefits of using the performing arts with this population and its relevance to occupational science. Furthermore, attendees will leave with a repertoire of performing arts activities while understanding their use as therapeutic media in the enhancement of adaptive behaviors.

Key words: performing arts, occupation-based program, occupational adaptation

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). Developmental disabilities increasing in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/developmentaldisabilities/features/birthdefects-dd-keyfindings.html

Clark, F.A., Parham, D., Carlson, G.F., Frank, G., Jackson, J., Pierce, D., Wolfe, R.J., Zemke, R. (1991). Occupational science: Academic innovation in the service of occupational therapy’s future. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45 (4), 300-310.

Moore, J., & Brown, B. (2012). Person System Behavior Taxonomy.

Portney, L.G., & Watkins, M.P. (2009). Quasi-Experimental Designs. In M. Cohen &M. Kerian (Eds.), Foundations of Clinical Research Applications to Practice (pp.223-234). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Schkade, J., & Schultz, S. (1992). Occupational adaptation: Toward a holistic approach for contemporary practice, part 1. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46(9), 829-837.

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Oct 2nd, 8:00 PM Oct 2nd, 9:00 PM

Poster Session - Facilitating adaptation: The effects of an occupation-based program

New River Rooms A & B

Intellectual/developmental disabilities are a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental and/or physical impairments. People with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDD) may experience problems with major life activities such as communication, mobility, social participation, and independent living (CDC, 2015). These problems may serve as barriers to participation in occupations, meaningful activities and provide individuals with a positive quality of life. According to the Centers for Disease Control (2015), there is an increase in the prevalence of individuals diagnosed with IDD. Therefore, it is imperative that evidence-based programming be developed to facilitate participation in occupation.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the performing arts in facilitating change in adaptive behaviors when used as an occupation. Acting Creates Therapeutic Success (ACTS), is a community-based program designed to provide those with IDD the opportunity to participate in the performing arts through the utilization of drama, dance, art, and music. Under the direction of occupational therapy practitioners, participants are encouraged to contribute in all areas of the creative process including story development, dance choreography, actor portrayal, costuming, set and playbill design; culminating in a performance for the public.

This efficacy study utilized a one-way repeated measures design over time (Portney & Watkins, 2009) to evaluate whether those who participated in ACTS demonstrated mastery in their person system behaviors. Schkade and Schultz (1992) defined person system behaviors as the sensorimotor, cognitive, and psychosocial characteristics present in the actions of an individual while performing a task. Participants were 13 adults ages 22 to 60 with IDD who were enrolled in ACTS for one hour a week for 12 weeks and met all inclusion criteria. Changes were measured by documenting the occurrence of the participant’s person system behaviors on the Person System Behavior Taxonomy developed by the researchers (Moore & Brown, 2012). Based on the Theory of Occupational Adaptation, this taxonomy consisted of 45 behavior statements reflecting a categorization of primitive, transitional, and mature adaptive response behaviors in the sensorimotor, cognitive, and psychosocial areas of the person system. The Person System Behavior Taxonomy was completed every 4th session for a total of 12 weeks by rating the frequency of each behavior on a 5-point scale. In this study, improvements were found in all three person systems with the greatest change occurring in the psychosocial person system. The findings support the use of the performing arts as a meaningful occupation among individuals with IDD.

As occupational science asserts, adaptation occurs when humans pursue and orchestrate occupations (Clark, et al., 1991). Similarly, research participants who were engaged in the occupation of the performing arts demonstrated a positive change in adaptation, thus supporting this assertion.

Attendees of this presentation will hear the results of an efficacy study regarding the benefits of using the performing arts with this population and its relevance to occupational science. Furthermore, attendees will leave with a repertoire of performing arts activities while understanding their use as therapeutic media in the enhancement of adaptive behaviors.

Key words: performing arts, occupation-based program, occupational adaptation