Document Type


Publication Date



Exercise Science


Physical and Health Education Academic Journal (PHEnex Journal)


Literature review


Token economies have been shown effective and useful within behaviour analysis and general educational literature. However, despite several recommendations for the use of token reinforcement within physical education and the documented effectiveness of token systems applied in physical activity settings, little research has examined these systems specifically within a physical education context. The following review examines the existing literature that applies token systems in physical activity situations. Based on the findings from these studies, paired with the recommended uses in physical education, it can be concluded that token systems may be a useful tool for physical educators. However, further research needs to be conducted, particularly in physical education settings. This review provides a rationale and an impetus for conducting such research.


This work was originally published in PHEnex, and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License.