Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Vision Science

Committee Chair

Larry R. Clausen


An overview of the chiropractic and naturopathic professions is presented in this paper. History, theories, therapeutic modalities, and educational preparation are discussed. Emphasis is given to education covering the eye and vision at Western States Chiropractic College and the National College of Naturopathic Medicine. A practitioner survey was conducted to investigate referral patterns, ocular screening areas, and ocular treatment areas. The survey revealed that a majority of chiropractors and: naturopaths rarely receive referrals from optometrists. Conversely, a majority of chiropractors and naturopaths purport to refer patients to optometrists at least occasionally. Almost half of the chiropractors and two thirds of the naturopaths questioned do some form of ocular screening. Close to half of the chiropractors and naturopaths are involved in treatment of certain ocular conditions.

Included in

Optometry Commons