Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Vision Science

Committee Chair

Jeff Rabin


Purpose. The Beery VMI test is a relatively culture independent method to assess visual motor integration and identify potential learning disabilities. This study provides a practical, quantitative basis for application of the VMI in China.

Methods. 356 children randomly selected from six kindergarten and elementary schools located in two different cities in China. Administration and scoring instructions were adapted directly from the test manual.

Results. VMI performance of Chinese children was significantly higher than that of U.S. children in the majority of age categories. Significant differences were also observed for residence, and for gender (female performance exceeded males).

Conclusions. Children of different cultures and educational backgrounds may show performance differences on the Beery VMI test. Customized scoring criteria are recommended for application of the Beery VMI in China.

Included in

Optometry Commons