Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Vision Science

Committee Chair

Bradley Coffey


Most visual exam findings are taken in the primary gaze position. It is unknown whether or not these primary gaze findings truly represent visual performance in non-primary gaze positions. Phoria and fixation disparity measurements were taken on 40 experimental subjects in primary gaze, left and right 33° lateral gazes, and in two golf related head postures. It was found that at 4 meters the visual system is less flexible and amplitudes of phoria and fixation disparity increased in all non-primary gaze situations. These findings suggest the need to consider the specific visual performance demands of individuals who depend on superior visual skills in nonprimary positions of gaze, such as the athlete.

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