Document Type

Critically Appraised Topic

Publication Date


Clinical Question

What is the evidence supporting the use of Neurofeedback as a treatment for children with ADHD?

Clinical Bottom Line

Neurofeedback was found efficacious in the treatment of ADHD in several studies; showing improvements not only in the behavioural symptoms experienced by the children with ADHD, but also in the underlying electrophysiological brain activity of these children. Even though these results are encouraging, some of these studies lack in clinical rigor (especially randomization) and some report large percentage of children not responding to treatment; indicating that additional research is needed, especially to identify different therapy protocols for children with different brain wave activity patterns. These future studies need to include randomization, the use of valid control groups and blind study strategies to increase the validity of their results.