Date of Graduation

Summer 8-11-2018

Degree Type

Capstone Project

Degree Name

Master of Science in Physician Assistant Studies


Background: Previous research has identified physiologic changes post-menopause with cardiovascular disease, but little research has been conducted investigating a link with heart failure or the influence of parity for risk stratification.

Methods: An exhaustive search of available medical literature was performed. MEDLINE OVID, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched using the keywords nulliparity, postmenopause, and heart failure. The articles were evaluated using GRADE.

Results: The search resulted in 2 studies evaluating the incidence of heart failure in a postmenopausal population and accounting for gravidity.

Conclusion: There is an association between nulliparity, grand multiparity, and increase in risk of heart failure in the postmenopausal population. The strongest association can be seen in development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.