Off-campus Pacific University users: To download campus access theses and dissertations, please log into our proxy server with your PUNet ID and password.
Non-Pacific University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis or dissertation through interlibrary loan.
Theses or dissertations that have a specific embargo period indicated below will not be available to anyone until the date indicated.
Date of Award
Capstone Project (On-Campus Access Only)
Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)
John Medeiros, PhD, PT
Sherly L. Sanders PhD
Background and Purpose. An innovative new style of crutches has recently been developed and made available to the general public. These new assistive devices are called "Keen Krutches," and include numerous added features over standard axillary crutches. The Keen Mobility Company (Portland, OR) that produces Keen Krutches claims their product is superior to traditional crutches. The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditure via heart rate measurements while ambulating with Keen vs. axillary crutches. Methods. Fifty young, healthy, subjects were recruited from the Pacific University student body to ambulate 160 meters with each type of crutch. Resting and exercise heart rates were monitored and recorded. Results. The average heart rate during ambulation with either type of crutch was not significantly different. However, average heart rate increases from rest to ambulation were significantly greater with the Keen Krutches as compared to the axillary style, correlating to increased energy expenditure. Additionally, subjects ambulated at statistically significantly slower rates while using Keen vs. axillary devices. Conclusion and Discussion. Due to a variety of reasons, ambulating with Keen Krutches appears to be more metabolically taxing than using the standard axillary design. At this time, it appears that Keen Krutches are not justified if energy conservation is the primary goal of crutch ambulation.
Carson, Justin W. and O'Neal, Katy L., "Energy Expenditure as Measured by Heartrate Using Keen Krutches Versus Standard Axillary Crutches During Ambulation" (2004). School of Physical Therapy. 118.