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Date of Award


Degree Type

Capstone Project (On-Campus Access Only)

Degree Name

Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)

First Advisor

John Medeiros, PhD, PT

Second Advisor

Kenneth W. Bush, PhD, PT


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.


Background and Purpose: Over the past several years, the incidence and awareness of wrist impairments has increased. Wrist impairments can have a serious impact on quality of life. To assess the value of either conservative or surgical care in the treatment of wrist impairments, it is important to understand normal wrist biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to measure the strength of the wrist flexors and extensors in normal· women.

Procedure: Forty-nine female subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 were recruited for the study. The wrist muscle force of the right side was tested.

Results: An average wrist force ratio of 2.52 was calculated, but the ratios varied widely. The mean force value for the flexors (50.81Ibs) was significantly greater than the force of the wrist extensors (21.11bs). The mean dominant hand extension force was 20.3 lbs and the mean non-dominant extension force was 191bs. The mean dominant flexion force was 49.91bs and the mean non-dominant flexion force was 56.9 Ibs. The dominant hand strength ratio of wrist flexors to extensors was 2.61, and the non-dominant hand strength ratio was 3.53. No typical force ratio was found for the wrist.

Conclusion: More testing is needed on a larger population of males and females in order to determine if there is a typical wrist strength ratio.


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