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Date of Award


Degree Type

Capstone Project (On-Campus Access Only)

Degree Name

Master of Science in Physical Therapy

First Advisor

Daiva A. Banaitis, PhD, PT

Second Advisor

Kenneth W. Bush, PhD, PT


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.


The objective of this study was to look at two clinically used skin preparation techniques and determine whether or not they significantly decrease the impedance of the skin when using the "Russian" current for neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). The left quadriceps musculature of 90 adult subjects (ages 18 - 45) was electrically: stimulated. These subjects were randomly assigned into three groups: Group I, receiving the abrasion technique (n = 30); Group II, receiving the tissue warming technique (n = 30); and Group ill, the control group receiving no skin preparatory technique (n = 30). ANOVA revealed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the resistance of the three skin preparations groups (P = 0.0368). No significant difference was found between male and female subjects (P-value 0.4463). A Scheffe post-hoc test revealed that the relationship between groups I and II (P = 0.2822), and between groups I and m (P = 0.6125), were not significant. A significant difference was noted between groups II and ill (P-value 0.0390). These results indicate that "healthy" individuals, in the studied age group, will demonstrate a decreased resistance to an alternating sinusoidal current with a frequency of 2500 Hz while producing a muscular contraction if hot packs are applied 15 minutes prior to stimulation.


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