Off-campus Pacific University users: To download campus access theses and dissertations, please log into our proxy server with your PUNet ID and password.

Non-Pacific University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis or dissertation through interlibrary loan.

Theses or dissertations that have a specific embargo period indicated below will not be available to anyone until the date indicated.

Date of Award


Degree Type

Capstone Project (On-Campus Access Only)

Degree Name

Master of Science in Physical Therapy

First Advisor

Daiva A. Banaitis, PhD, PT

Second Advisor

M. J. Strauhal, BS, PT


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.


Immersion has been shown to be an effective treatment for the edema of pregnancy. This study compared the effects of static immersion with water aerobics on the edema associated with pregnancy. Eighteen healthy women ranging from 20 to 33 weeks of gestation were studied in each of three randomly assigned conditions. These conditions included static standing on land, static immersion and water aerobics and they were tested' at least 48 hours apart. Urine volume, urine specific gravity, subject weight, left leg volume displacement, and vital sighs were assessed before and after each treatment condition. Significant diuresis was found with both the immersion and water aerobics conditions over the land condition. No significant difference was found between the diuretic effects of immersion and water aerobics. Our study results suggest that water aerobics is as beneficial for its diuretic and edema reducing effects as simple immersion and offers the additional benefits of exercise during pregnancy.


The digital version of this project is currently unavailable to off-campus users not affiliated with Pacific University; however, it may be accessed on campus or through interlibrary loan (for eligible borrowers) from Pacific University Library. Pacific University Library is a free lender.