Off-campus Pacific University users: To download campus access theses and dissertations, please log into our proxy server with your PUNet ID and password.
Non-Pacific University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis or dissertation through interlibrary loan.
Theses or dissertations that have a specific embargo period indicated below will not be available to anyone until the date indicated.
Date of Award
Thesis (On-Campus Access Only)
Master of Physical Therapy (MPT)
Nancy Cicirello, MPH, PT
Jay Salzman, BS, PT
Studies have consistently shown that a high percentage of low
back injuries are due to cumulative trauma, and more specifically
to improper techniques of lifting. It is important to focus on
the way children lift objects because early instruction may be
vital in. minimizing damage to the back over a lifetime. In this
study, 108 children, aged two through nine years were videotaped
while lifting a series of weighted boxes. The purpose was to
describe lifting patterns in children and to determine whether
the observed patterns represent developmental stages. There was
a potential for each child to earn a maximum of forty points:
actual scores ranged from seven to thirty~eight. Only 8% used a
straight back while lifting. Sixty-one percent of the two and
three year aIds and 20% of the other children had knee flexion of
90 degrees or more. This study provides support for the presence
of developmental stages of lifting in children. Ideas for future
research in lifting patterns and training programs are discussed.
Brodie-Knope, Elizabeth Ann and Palfenier, Rebecca, "Developmental sequence of lifting patterns in children" (1992). School of Physical Therapy. 329.