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Date of Award


Degree Type

Thesis (On-Campus Access Only)

Degree Name

Master of Physical Therapy (MPT)

First Advisor

Daiva Banaitis, PhD, PT

Second Advisor

Ann Williams, PhD, PT


This study reports on ranges of motion of the ankle joint in 102 healthy females ranging in age from three to ninety-four years old. Arcs of active motion were measured using a clinical goniometer, following the techniques suggested by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Obtained values showed significant differences in all motions between age groups with the most notable decrease in motion occurring after the seventh decade. Results must be tempered by the small number of subjects in this study over seventy years of age. Variables associated with range of motion included type of shoes worn, employment, and activity level. There was a statistically significant difference between right and left sides, but this difference was not clinically significant when using a goniometer. Therefore, a patient's healthy ankle can be used for comparison with the affected side in the presence on disease or injury.


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