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Date of Award


Degree Type

Capstone Project (On-Campus Access Only)

Degree Name

Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)

First Advisor

Rebecca Reisch, PT, DPT


1. Clinical Bottom Line Based on the evidence within this review it can be stated that exercise alone, without hormone replacement therapy, effectively increases or maintains bone mineral density at specific sites in postmenopausal women with low bone mass.

2. Clinical Scenario As the elderly population continues to grow, the incidence of osteoporosis is rising. Previous interventions for osteoporosis have included medications and supplementation which have shown not to be appropriate for all persons with osteoporosis and have even been shown to have detrimental effects over long term use. The intention of this research review was to determine the efficacy of exercise alone in maintaining or increasing bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. The results of this review will enable a physical therapist to become better educated on the influence of exercise on the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

3. Clinically answerable question Population: Postmenopausal women with low bone mass as measured by Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Intervention: Efficacy of exercise training on bone mineral density. Comparison: Control group of postmenopausal women not participating in an exercise training program. Outcome: Bone mineral density status as measured by DXA.


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