Off-campus Pacific University users: To download campus access theses and dissertations, please log into our proxy server with your PUNet ID and password.
Non-Pacific University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis or dissertation through interlibrary loan.
Theses or dissertations that have a specific embargo period indicated below will not be available to anyone until the date indicated.
Date of Award
Dissertation (On-Campus Access Only)
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Cynthia Strum, PhD
Charles Fantz, PhD
Miller Garrison, PhD
The effect of rule emphasis within the family environment on the creative expression of literal age children was investigated. The Family Environment
Scale, the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, the Stroop Color-Word Test, and the Conners Teacher Rating Scale were the instruments used. It was hypothesized that children from families with medium levels of rule emphasis would obtain higher creativity scores than children from families with either high or low rule emphasis. Cognitive flexibility, as measured by the Color-Word test was expected to vary in a similar manner as a function of family control. Additionally, it was predicted that highly creative children would obtain higher scores on the CTRS than children obtaining lower TTCT scores. Thirty-six third, fourth and fifth grade children from thirty-one families participated in this study. Children's scores on the TTCT and Color-Word test were compared on the basis of parent responses on the FES Control Scale, and teacher descriptions on the CTRS. Results were tabulated and analyzed using analysis of variance. The hypotheses were not supported. Results are discussed in terms of statistical issues regarding homogeneity of the sample and FES factors which may be antecedent conditions to the formulation and implementation of family rules.
Dugger, Margaret M. (1987). The effect of family rule emphasis on expression of creative behavior in literal age children (Doctoral dissertation, Pacific University). Retrieved from: