Off-campus Pacific University users: To download campus access theses and dissertations, please log into our proxy server with your PUNet ID and password.
Non-Pacific University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis or dissertation through interlibrary loan.
Theses or dissertations that have a specific embargo period indicated below will not be available to anyone until the date indicated.
Date of Award
Dissertation (On-Campus Access Only)
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Laura Edwards-Leeper, PhD
Transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) youth experience higher rates of depression, anxiety, rejection, neglect, and bullying than cisgender youth. Research has shown that peer relationships are crucial to adolescents’ mental health (La Greca & Harrison, 2005). However, there is limited research regarding the impact of peer support systems on the mental health of TGNC youths. The aim of this study was to explore the possible impacts of TGNC youths’ peer relationships on several mental health variables for this vulnerable population. Ninety-two TGNC youth participants (ages 14-17), recruited through social media platforms (i.e., Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit), anonymously completed an online self-report questionnaire about peer support, anxiety, and depression factors (Interpersonal Support Evaluation, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Peer Version, SCARED, and PHQ-A). Peer support was found to significantly predict mental health outcomes. Specifically alienation and belonging significantly predicted overall depression symptoms. Aspects of peer support measures were correlated with symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder and significant school avoidance. Mental health outcomes were found to be significantly predicted by peer support. Based on the findings, it is critical for TGNC youths to have positive peer relationships in which they feel connected to and supported by their peers; and free from alienation and further stigmatization. Results also suggest that TGNC youths do not currently view the majority of their peer relationships as having the level of communication, trust, and in person support that they would like. Intervention and prevention programs for TGNC youths should emphasize the creation and cultivation of positive peer relationships to reduce overall negative mental health symptoms and improve quality of life for TGNC youths.
Cavaligos, Tracy (2018). Anxiety, Depression, and Peer Support in Transgender and Gender Diverse Youth (Doctoral dissertation, Pacific University). Retrieved from:
Available for download on Wednesday, May 27, 2020