Off-campus Pacific University users: To download campus access theses and dissertations, please log into our proxy server with your PUNet ID and password.
Non-Pacific University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis or dissertation through interlibrary loan.
Theses or dissertations that have a specific embargo period indicated below will not be available to anyone until the date indicated.
Date of Award
Dissertation (On-Campus Access Only)
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Shawn E. Davis, PhD
There is a documented history of stereotyped and harmful media portrayals of athletes based on skin color. Some of these evident stereotypes, such as a “brain vs. Brawn" stereotype are evident within organizations as well, referred to as racial stacking. This racial stacking has seemed to decrease over time, however, a new form of stacking has emerged. Stacking has now become racial tasking, specifically within the quarterback position in football. ESPN classifications of individual quarterbacks (Pocket Passer vs Dual Threat) in cohorts of high school quarterbacks entering college football were examined for the presence of racial tasking. For the years 2013-2017, Black quarterbacks were far more likely to be categorized as Dual Threat, with White quarterbacks being more likely categorized as Pocket Passer. Racial tasking is present in the different levels of football and will most likely continue to have negative impacts on Black quarterbacks.
Keywords: race, racial stacking, racial tasking, football, racial inequality
Smith, Jaaron (2019). From Stacking to Tasking: Throwing, Running, and Race in Quarterbacks (Doctoral dissertation, Pacific University). Retrieved from:
Available for download on Sunday, July 25, 2021