Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Committee Chair

Johan Rosqvist, PsyD

Second Advisor

Michael Christopher, PhD

Third Advisor

Michel Hersen, PhD, ABPP


The potential additive impact of live-supervision modalities upon counselor self-efficacy beliefs (CSEs) was explored using linear regression models. Though live-supervision had no additive effect on CSE beliefs in a sample of 89 counseling and clinical psychology trainees, clear preferences for certain training modalities were revealed. A connection between general self-efficacy beliefs (GSEs) and counseling self-efficacy beliefs as measured by two validated measures was also found. CSEs varied per therapeutic orientation, with significant effects for humanistic and interpersonal orientations. Discussion of findings and suggestions for future research are presented.


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