Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Committee Chair

Michael Daniel, PhD

Second Advisor

BJ Scott, PsyD

Third Advisor

Michel Hersen, PhD, ABPP


Normative data has established that normal age-related declines are more pronounced on visual-graphic than verbal memory tests. The BVMT-R is a visual-graphic memory test clinically useful for the elderly because the relatively simple content minimizes low ceiling effects and it has six alternate forms that can be used in serial evaluations. However, subjectively, not all forms appear to be equal in complexity. The purpose of this study was to assess the equivalence of Forms 1 and 4 of the BVMT-R for individuals aged 80-89. Volunteer participants were 26 men and 64 women without significant history of, or current, medical / psychological problems or substance use. Subjects were divided into two age groups: 80-84 (n = 42) and 85-89 (n = 48). Subjects were administered Forms 1 and 4 one week apart in counterbalanced order. There were no significant differences between Forms 1 and 4 for BVMT-R Total and Delayed raw scores for the 80-84 age group Wilks’s = .952, F(2,40) = 1.01, p = .374. There were significant differences between Form 1 and 4 raw scores for ages 85-89 Wilks’s = .842, F(2,46) = 4.32, p = .019. BVMT-R Total raw scores were higher for Form 1 F, (1, 47) = 8.83, p = 0.005, and nearly significantly higher for Delayed raw scores F, (1, 47) = 3.94, p = 0.053. Individuals in their early 80’s obtain comparable scores on Forms 1 and 4 of the BVMT-R. For patients in their late 80’s, learning, and likely delayed recall, is easier for Form 1 than Form 4.


Library Use: LIH