Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Committee Chair

Lisa Christiansen, PsyD

Second Advisor

Jeff Guardalabene, PsyD

Third Advisor

Michel Herson, PhD, ABPP


The current study was designed as a follow-up study and explored factors influencing the development of vicarious trauma in licensed clinicians including a personal history of trauma, work experience, trauma-specific training, and defense style. Doctoral and Master’s level licensed clinicians (N= 77) completed an Experience and Demographic questionnaire, the Trauma and Belief Scale (TABS), and the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). In comparison to the previous study which found significant results, no significant results were found. Licensed clinicians reported an overwhelming use of mature defense styles (97%) with mean scores within the Average Range (45-55) on the 5 TABS subscales of self psychological needs. The results may indicate that in comparison to those in training, licensed clinicians are not experiencing significant levels of vicarious trauma as a result of treating victims of trauma.


Library Use: LIH