Off-campus Pacific University users: To download campus access theses and dissertations, please log into our proxy server with your PUNet ID and password.
Non-Pacific University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis or dissertation through interlibrary loan.
Theses or dissertations that have a specific embargo period indicated below will not be available to anyone until the date indicated.
Date of Award
Thesis (On-Campus Access Only)
Master of Science in Clinical Psychology (MSCP)
Jon Frew, Ph.D.
Multicultural counseling and competencies have been an important topic in psychotherapy literature. Sue, Arredondo and McDavis (1992) proposed competencies to guide counselors in becoming multiculturally competent. However, the models and guidelines developed for culturally sensitive psychotherapy have been criticized for being disconnected from the more traditional counseling orientations. This study was conducted to determine if traditional counseling theories have components of multicultural competencies embedded in them and to explore a means of reconciling the differences between multicultural and traditional counseling literature. Three counseling orientations were selected for examination; cognitive behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy and gestalt therapy. It was determined that they all have certain aspects, if practiced competently, address the multicultural competencies. The three orientations have other aspects however, that need to be emphasized when working with culturally different clients in order to realize multicultural competency.
Kaymak, U. Yaprak (2006). Multicultural competence: An exploration of traditional theories of counseling (Master's thesis, Pacific University). Retrieved from: