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Date of Award
Dissertation (On-Campus Access Only)
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Sandra Jenkins, PhD
Mary DuPain, PhD
Roberts Basham, PhD
This study examined existing literature pertaining to females and gangs and found very little theoretical basis for understanding who these young women are and what they are like. An extensive research study used structured interviews, standardized questionnaires, and collaborative records to gather information about adolescent women in a metropolitan area with an emerging gang problem. Several variables were identified which could differentiate gang-involved adolescent women from other groups of adolescent women and these were used to develop a "Gang Involvement Risk Index." Significant variables included: low education level of mother; poor relationship with father, or absent father; perception of mistreatment at home; lack of sense of efficacy; low self-esteem; and having friends who are gang members. Implications for intervention and programming are discussed.
Shulmire, Sandra Rodden (1993). A comparative study of gang-involved, at-risk, and not-at-risk adolescent females (Doctoral dissertation, Pacific University). Retrieved from: