The growing incidence of child abuse and the laws in all fifty states mandating it be reported, along with the fact that approximately 40% of all physically abused children have ocular complications, make it increasingly important for optometrists to be prepared for an encounter with a child patient who has been abused. This review of the literature was undertaken to develop a diagnostic guide for the optometrist. It describes different types of abuse and their physical, emotional and behavioral manifestations. A special emphasis has been placed on head trauma and associated ocular signs. A list of State Child Protective Services Agencies and how to contact them is included.
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