Previous research on shift workers suggests that this type of employment schedule causes increased strain, health problems, and social difficulties for employees. An examination of the literature on work and family conflict and gender demonstrates that there are inconsistent outcomes based on gender and experience of conflict between work and home, however, social role theory posits that women would experience more familywork conflict and men would experience more work-family conflict. Shift workers have been chosen to test this theory due to the likelihood that their unique employment arrangements may exacerbate any challenges that may be present in more typical employment, based in the belief that the role expectations of work and home are not always compatible, and may create conflict. Work-family and family-work conflict was evaluated separately based on the belief that there are differences in how individuals experience role imbalance.
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