Theories on the pathogenesis of amblyopia are reviewed. The history and description of various methods of amblyopia treatment are reported. Next, the advantages of optical penalization over other methods of amblyopia treatment are given, with a description of testing which should be done in order to screen for appropriate patients. A literature review on success rates for various methods of amblyopia treatment is given. Finally, five original case reports are given in which optical penalization has been used with success.
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