The effective implementation of treatment programs in correctional facilities depends on those staff directly and indirectly involved in their implementation. However, two conflicting orientations toward treatment exist among staff in the correctional system: the custodial orientation, which stresses security and maintenance, and the rehabilitation orientation, which stresses treatment and rehabilitative techniques and considers security a second priority. An understanding of the variables involved in determining orientation can contribute to effective implementation of treatment programs. This paper reviews the research that has been done in that area. Variables related to attitudes toward treatment are examined. Additionally, methodological / limitations of this area of research are discussed and suggestions for future research are given.
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