This review discusses the convergence of several research and engineering fields working to design and integrate electrochemical biosensing units into contact lenses. Tear fluid contains a wide variety of biochemical information about both ocular and systemic environments. By measuring biomarkers and their concentrations, it is possible to determine whether certain disease states are present. Emerging biosensor technology, most notably materials constructed at the nano scale, are showing incredible precision in the identification and quantification of individual molecules. Miniature, integrated biosensing units, which require energy self-sufficiency and wireless operation, consist of a few fundamental electronic components. The major systems discussed in this work include: energy, circuits and communication. Publicly documented contact lens prototypes provide an idea of how far the field has come and what challenges lie ahead. The projected clinical impact of real-time, continuous tear fluid monitoring is immense. It is vital that the eye care field remains keenly aware of the efforts underway and active in the conversation going forward.
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