Patients often present to the optometrist with symptoms of dizziness and imbalance. This article reviews the most common visual signs and symptoms of individuals suffering from peripheral vestibular disorders. It also explains the five most common peripheral vestibular disorders-benign paroxysmal positional vertigo/nystagmus, Meniere's disease, secondary hydrops, perilymph fistula, and vestibular neuritis. A vestibular screening battery that can be performed by optometrists in office is presented. Management and treatment options such as lenses, prisms and vision therapy are explored. In addition, proper referral guidelines to neuro-otologists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and psychologists are discussed.
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