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The Development of the General Sports Self-Efficacy Scale: A Preliminary Study

25 July 2008


The present study represents the development of the General Sports Self-Efficacy Scale. Based on Bandura's theory of self-efficacy and the resulting suggestions for appropriate scale construction, the authors present a measure that highlights the interdependent role of past experience, verbal persuasion, vicarious learning, and physiological cues on the development of perceived ability to attain desired athletic goals. Student-athletes provided demographic information, and responded to surveys detailing their athletic self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, athletic self confidence, and locus of control. In accordance with current views on self-efficacy, those individuals participating in true team sports demonstrated higher levels of sports self-efficacy than did those engaged in true individual sports. In regard to the psychometric properties of the GSSE, the scale was found to be both reliable and valid. Limitations to the present study are discussed, and suggestions for future research are also provided.


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