The setting of Wilms Tumor (WT) possesses many issues such as size, location, and complexity. This condition can involve specific surrounding structures that make surgical resection difficult (urinary collecting ducts, veins, arteries). One of the main focuses of the resection of WT is to spare the renal parenchyma, especially in the setting of bilateral WT. Because this condition is the most common renal tumor in children it is vital to be able to salvage as much renal tissue in order to prevent future end stage renal disease (ESRD). Currently the standard of practice is to use computerized axial tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to define borders, location, and complexity of WT. New imaging modalities are on the rise such as three-dimensional printing. The purpose of this review is to explore if there are any benefits of using three-dimensional printing in the pre-operative settings of the surgical resection of WT. The long-term benefits of performing NSS is important for the prevention of end stage renal disease. 3D printing has a role to play in improved preoperative planning and execution of Wilms tumor resections. This imaging modality can prove to be a valuable surgical tool and will greatly benefit from further study and implementation.
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