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Test-retest; The reliability of the DEM, King-Devick, and Visagraph

1 May 1994


The Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM), King-Devick (K-D), and Visagraph are three of the most frequently employed tests currently being utilized to assess eye movements in Optometric practice today. Although these tests have been normed, there have been no studies that assess the test-retest reliability and correlations between these most commonly used eye movement tests. Thirty-four elementary school children, between the ages of 9 and 11, were screened for visual abnormalities: Three trials for each test were presented in random order, with one week intervals between tests 1 and 2, and 2 and 3. The DEM showed significant differences between trials 1 and 2, and 1 and 3. K-D showed significant differences for subtest III between trials 1 and 3, and Visagraph showed significant differences between trials 1 and 3 for rate without rereading. A high correlation (R=.841) between DEM and K-D was also found. Correlations between Visagraph and DEM and Visagraph and KD were not quite as high, but still good (R=.500), (R=.506) respectively. These results indicate a change in performance, possibly due to test familiarity existing. Single administration of these tests may not be adequate with pretesting strongly recommended. High correlations between the DEM and K-D may preclude the need for performing both tests.


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