Trauma is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5), as “exposure to actual death or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence, witnessing the event in person, learning of the event that a close family member or friend endured, or repeatedly experiencing an extreme exposure to the aversive details of a traumatic event” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Given that children are dependent on adults for survival, they are at increased risk of exposure to traumatic events and are at particular risk for childhood maltreatment (Teicher & Samson, 2013). Childhood maltreatment encompasses a variety of traumatic experiences, both active and passive, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, or witnessing parental abuse (Teicher & Samson, 2013). In addition to a betrayal of trust (Freyd, 2001; Teicher & Samson, 2013), children who experience childhood maltreatment or child abuse (CA) often experience
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