BACKGROUND: Many adults do not consume breakfast. Many studies have determined a significant relationship between skipping breakfast and effects on weight gain, diabetes, and/or nutrition. However, few studies focus on the association of breakfast consumption and all-cause mortality. This critically appraised topic examines the correlation of skipping breakfast to the rate of mortality due to all causes, using data from 2 recent cohort studies, conducted within the past 5 years.
METHODS: An extensive search was conducted within the MEDLINE-Pubmed, Web of Science and Google Scholar, CINAHAL databases, utilizing the following search terms: skip*, breakfast, and mortality. The inclusion criteria were prospective cohort studies, with healthy adult participants. The exclusion criteria were studies dated over ten years, child participants, participants from one single gender, patients with diabetes, and articles not written in the English language. Risk of bias for each study was evaluated using JAMAevidence critical appraisal worksheets.
RESULTS: Two articles met both the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were thoroughly assessed for risk of bias. The first article, conducted on 83410 participants, found that skipping breakfast significantly increased the risk of mortality from circulatory diseases and all causes. The second article, which investigated 6550 participants, found that individuals who never consumed breakfast had higher hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality, compared to individuals who always consumed breakfast.
CONCLUSION: With 17-23 years of follow up, skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of mortality from all causes in both men and women.
KEYWORDS: Skipping breakfast, mortality, adult, and prospective cohort study
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